I need to use a figure from a published paper that is non open access, and copyrighted. What is the general advice for going about this? Do people tend to pay the fee for access to reproduce it? Or do you just not insert it into your preprint article? It would be difficult for me to not have it in my article, since it's the central framework I am using
If you're determined to include the figure from this paper in your article, you'll have to get permission from the copyright holder to reproduce it. Some journals allow free licensing through the copyright clearance center marketplace - you should check that first. If that doesn't pan out, large publishers typically have a licensing, reprints, and copyright department that you may be able to contact with your request.
If you can't secure a reprint license through those methods, you can always make your own figure based on the same data or concepts.
The copyright holder of the figure has exclusive rights to reproduce (reprint in exactly the same form) or adapt (reprint a version with elements added/removed) the figure. Paying the fee to access the article does not confer copyright. If you want to reproduce or adapt the figure, you need to get permission from the copyright holder, or else you can't legally do so.
What you can do is redraw the figure. Copyright covers the particular expression of an idea, but not the idea itself. You can take the original figure of a schematic or workflow or whatever it may be, and produce a new figure from scratch that represents the same information.