How many [conceptual] sections should an "Introduction" contain?
I need to know this so that I can better arrange the Introduction section of my paper.
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At a very high level, most introductions try to accomplish a few tasks:
In some papers, there may also be an extended review of technical results that will be used later on. This review could be its own section, separate from the introduction.
There are no hard rules that apply to all papers. Not all papers will include all of those bullet points. For papers that do, how long the text for any of those bullet points can take will vary. Some papers may explicitly include headings signposting the different parts of an introduction ("Related Work", "Outline", ...), other papers may simply have a single "Introduction" section that covers all that ground, and still others may not have any section headers at all (no explicitly marked "Introduction"). For journals with a strict word count (which are also typically higher-impact journals), you typically want to reserve your words for explaining the novel contributions, with very little space taken up by a review. For papers giving a long and technical argument, it may be appropriate to have several "introductory" sections to lay the groundwork so that all the details are laid out in a self-contained way. For review articles, very little if anything in the review will be novel, so the introduction will likely focus on giving a motivation, pointers to the most important references, and a detailed outline of the review.
Because of these and other nuances that depend on the paper you are writing, is impossible to give an answer to the question you asked that is both straightforward and accurate. The real answer is that you should do what makes the most sense for your paper. If you have no idea, some things you can do to gather data are: