Here in Serbia, the situation is similar to other Bologna countries.
Prerequisite for university education is finished elementary school (9 years, recently extended from 8) and a four-year secondary school.
Next step is the choice between the "academic" and "vocational" studies.
In the academic progression "tree" steps are as following:
- 3-year (180 ECTS points) basic studies giving title of "something",
followed by 2-year (120 ECTS points) Master studies giving title of
"master of something"
- 4-year (240 ECTS points) basic studies giving title of "graduated something" followed by 1-year (60 ECTS points) Master studies giving
title of "master of something".
- 5-year (300 ECTS points) integrated studies, mostly in medical fields, giving titles of "Master of something" or "Doctor of
something" or "Magister of something", depending on field.
- 6-year (360 ECTS points) integrated studies, in medical field, giving title "Doctor of medicine"
- 1-year (60 ECTS points) specialist studies, master studies as
prerequisite, not required for doctorate, giving title of "Specialist
- 3-year (180 ECTS points) doctorate studies, master studies as
prerequisite, giving title of "Doctor of some sciences"
In the vocational tree steps are as following:
- 3-year (180 ECTS points) basic studies giving title of "vocational
- 1-year (60 ECTS points) specialist studies giving title of
"specialist vocational something"
There is no direct path for transfer between vocational and academic studies, however schools are allowed to accept equivalence and credit certain exams.
I don't have any hard data about the pre-Bologna system at the moment, but major differences were that there were no master studies. Studies in the technical fields were all 5-year, while most humanities were 4-year.
Doctorate studies were separated into two steps:
Magister studies which had course-work and a thesis starting with "technical qualification exam" and ending with a minor thesis and "research qualification exam".
Doctorate studies themselves which had no coursework and only required publishing an original thesis.
Currently, Bologna-style doctorate studies are combination of previous magister and doctorate studies and contain the technical qualification exam and the research qualification exam.
Furthermore, in technical fields, the thesis results had to be original to science in general, while in humanities, thesis results had to be original in Serbian science.