Are there recommended or standard published papers (not books) that show great research methodology/ scientific methods? I am trying to help out a friend who is in business and they are trying to study aspects of humans (in terms of their clients). I gave him the book The Craft of Research, but it's long and I wonder if there is a paper that could do the same job. Basically I want to show him a good example of coming up with a hypothesis, accounting for variables (such as stating that something was done in order to eliminate a problem), and analyzing the results.
Qulatrics has a nice concise (and free) guide to doing marketing research. Not a journal article, but I give it to my students in my research methods course because it's practical and comprehensive but not overwhelming. In fact, they have a lot of useful resources here: http://www.qualtrics.com/university/researchsuite/research-resources/other-resources/ebook-downloads/
I personally find a lot of both elegance and accessibility in the descriptions of well-done infant and animal cognition studies. A nice source for examples is the Harvard Laboratory for Developmental Studies, and a nice short accessible piece from their library is this one: "Chicks, like children, spontaneously reorient by three-dimensional environmental geometry, not by image matching": it's only 3 pages long, presents the hypothesis, method, and results quite tersely, and the experimental apparatus can be built with common household objects.