I'm working on an online formatting problem with a UK programmer who is not familiar with academic style requirements. The styling problem in one that is frequently encountered in APA and some Chicago-based style guides—both style guides that originated in America (U.S.). I'm wondering if UK journals also use styles based on these two American style guides.

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    I suspect that this is more a matter of academic discipline, not of country. In my experience (math/CS) a journal is providing the bibtex style file they want authors to use, and then you just use that. I only know of APA/Chicago due to questions by confused undergrads.
    – Arno
    Mar 2, 2022 at 17:46
  • My formatting problem is for an online journal that published the lay theological research of a PhD who was a bacteriologist and biochemist, so the formatting doubtless reflected his academic writing. It contains what APA and Chicago call run-in headings (levels 4 or 5), which are difficult to style online with W3C styling tools. I was curious if this was a problem in the UK as well as the US.
    – iZann
    Mar 2, 2022 at 21:40
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    Arno is right; country and citation style are not related. Mar 2, 2022 at 22:40

1 Answer 1


I've published in a mix of journals including some based in the UK.

I don't think I've encountered one yet that uses APA or Chicago or any other specific style guide; they all come up with their own, which may be loosely or closely based on some other guide (if one of them has used APA or Chicago it must not have been very notable at the time, though). I don't think it's possible to say "generally" for anything regarding citation format styles, particularly across fields.

  • Thank you. Good answer, and I appreciate that you are speaking from experience. The programmer is thinking about writing an article about the issue we are working on, and I got to thinking that maybe it's not an issue in the UK. But since, as you say, every journal has it's own rules (as is also true with most US-based journals), I suspect his article would be useful in at least some circumstances on his side of the Atlantic. And it would also be useful for UK academics who write for US-based journals.
    – iZann
    Mar 2, 2022 at 16:21

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