I wanna add a bit to Jeroens answer. With you having majored in Math and not CS you will of course not have as much insight into the practical work of a CS-major, so will need to (re)learn more than your peers. You can still succeed but it might not be as easy for you.
I wanna go into a bit more detail regarding the list of examples you provided us with:
I switched to MacOS from Windows, and I learned basic Unix-like commands on terminal.
This can happen to anyone who isn't used to Unix commands so I wouldn't worry about this.
Never used C++ before, so have to learn this new language. How to bind C++ into a Python module.
No one knows every programming language. That is simply impossible but only knowing Python(I might be interpreting too much here) is quite rare so you will need to put some time into learning the language that is used in your current position. Tho I think it is quite unusual that you only worked with one programming language during your CS studies it is definetly not too bad if you know the theoretical basics of programming.
Learned to connect to remote server with virtual environment using SSH, and how to set up remote connection on VSCode.
This is in my opinion one of the more basic-ish things that one learns while working in CS. As this seems to be your first more practical positions in CS it is unsurprising that you need to learn some more basic things.
How to manage projects with Git and GitHub.
I learned this in my 2nd Semester of studying CS so my guess would be that most employers would expect you to know this already but it is not particularly hard to learn.
How to make better documentation with Sphinx.
Learning about scientific plot with matplotlib on Python.
These two things are somewhat specific to the work you are doing and thus it is not a big deal that you had to learn these things. Most people need an onboarding phase at a new job until they are familiar with all the tools that are used at that specific place. As Jeroen had already pointed out it might take you a bit longer, as you have not as much experience as your peers but it is nothing that you can't easily make up.