Can anyone refer me to materials to determine what a habilitation (HDR) earned in France, pre-Bologna circa 1993, would be equivalent to in the US? What would the US equivalent be for someone that did NOT earn a doctorate, only the HDR. Any references online or journals, etc. are appreciated.

  • Why isn't this a duplicate of this earlier question? academia.stackexchange.com/q/161997/75368. See en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Habilitation
    – Buffy
    Commented Dec 24, 2021 at 19:34
  • @Buffy: It's not a duplicate because generally a habilitation is obtained after a doctorate. The particular situation described might even be impossible in some countries.
    – Dan Fox
    Commented Dec 24, 2021 at 19:58
  • @DanFox, so, in the past was it possible to gain habilitation without a doctorate?
    – Buffy
    Commented Dec 24, 2021 at 21:22
  • yes, in France you could get a habilitation without a phd. this is pre-bologna
    – user151648
    Commented Jan 6, 2022 at 18:23


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