In addition to all the things you mention in your own answer, let me suggest that you find a way to depend on other people to help you with important papers that have to be understood.
There are a variety of ways to do this, but the best, I think, is collaboration and frequent discussion. Small working groups and seminars can help, even using things like Zoom. And, collaboration has its own benefits. These small working groups are unlikely to be all one sided.
I don't have dyslexia so can't offer deep help, but I wonder if you can make better sense of notes you write yourself. If that is the case, then a discussion over a paper, not just someone reading it to you, while you take notes might help.
Some professors, in fact, assign papers to students and then have the students explain it to them. Dyslexia isn't involved here but it is a way to get the students reading more as well as easing the path to understanding new papers themselves. So, it can have a mutual benefit.
You seem to have a good grasp of the needs and some solutions already, but for people struggling even more with this I'd suggest talking to a knowledgeable professional about techniques available. I suspect that there is research on this.