Let me try to paint a picture since you have hidden a few different questions here.
For the title question, some professors will read young-student research and others won't. Those most likely to are those teaching young people such as high-school teachers, but also professors in teaching oriented colleges and universities. They are looking for things that are at a level that their own students can appreciate. Research institute professors are less likely to do this as the questions they consider are much deeper.
But, if your publication is truly interesting to one of the above people, they will very likely mention it to others in their circle, even a serious researcher. And someone who reviews for a youth journal is likely to have a fairly wide circle.
There is also a field of "recreational math" that is accessible by young people and some professors have an interest. You don't specify math, of course.
For the question in the first paragraph, most which school students don't have the background to read and understand professional level research, but a few do. There are occasional surprises in this regard. Sometimes it is due to an especially astute teacher who coaches a student in a good direction. I remember elementary students doing real research on the biology in small streams in their neighborhood. It was publishable.
For the last paragraph, yes, you did the right thing for a lot of reasons. The experience of doing it is good to have. It can increase your confidence. It can increase your curiosity. For the best venue to publish what you create, however, it is good to ask someone with more experience than you have. It is possible that some things created by the quite young have a value to professional academics.
You are on a good path. Follow it. One step isn't enough. But it is a start.
I wrote a paper in high school for a contest. It was very interesting to me and I learned a lot and it helped me decide to become a mathematician. However, there were some things I didn't know at the time, nor did my teachers, so it turned out to be very incomplete and not interesting in general other than to spark my interest. In that sense it was very valuable personally.