At some point every scholar faces the fact that they no longer have a guide and that they are mostly on their own for learning new things. I can make a few suggestions.
If you are learning something completely new, expect it to be slow. If it is deep, expect it to be very slow. It took Einstein about ten years to come up with special relativity.
If you are learning something related to what you know already, try to build connections between the two. Try to get insights into the new topic from insights (and the way you obtained them) from the old.
Some of your approaches, such as #6 seem to be both based on memorization, not learning, and a too small, microscopic, view of the subject. You need a broad view and insight and that is unlikely to be found in any small section of a text, certainly not in a paragraph. Ask yourself constantly "How does it fit?".
Don't work alone. Einstein bounced ideas off of others in his circle during those ten years. And he used very old insights from Galileo to form the foundation. Discuss what you are learning with others who also might be interested.
If you absolutely have to work alone, don't work from just one text. Get a different book and compare what is written in the two (or more) texts. Different authors may take slightly different approaches to a topic and you might gather insight from that.
I'll suggest one simple technique that might help or not. It has two parts. First, as you read, take notes. Don't just copy what you read, but try to capture your understanding of them in a single sentence or two (not more). Take the notes on index cards and number them as you go, since you will eventually rearrange them and may want to put them back in order. You can use different colors of cards for different sorts of things also. Keep the backs of the cards empty initially.
The second part of the exercise is to select a few cards, perhaps at random, not always sequential. Look at those cards and think about whether there are interrelationships between what you have written on the cards. The goal is to use different approaches to try to find a big picture - insight. The backs of the cards can be used during review for notations. And you can create new cards as well.
The advantage of index cards over electronic capture is that you can always carry a few cards with you and spend a few minutes here and there reviewing just those cards. Let the mind work. Let it wander. Intense study over many hours can be self defeating, actually. The mind gets stuck. It gets tired. It rebels.
There is, of course, no plan that will work for everyone.