When using Chicago Style Footnote can other notes (i.e. asides and not references) be used in the footnotes as well or should footnotes be kept exclusively for the references?

  • If mixed (references and notes in footnotes), how is citing then used in a 'note' footnote?

  • If kept separate (references and notes) where should notes go?

1 Answer 1


The overwhelming majority of journals that use the Chicago style allow you to include "asides" along with source material references. In fact it is quite a common thing. For an example of how references and extra comments can be mixed together into a single footnote, just read any article from Monumenta Nipponica, or JSAH.

Nevertheless, do be sure to double-check the specific requirements and instructions provided by the journal in question, and confirm if they have any problem with including general info in the footnotes.

EDIT: here is an example of several mixed references together with additional comments within a single note, taken from the following paper:


(Note that endnotes can be written in the same manner as footnotes, there is no difference except in their placement within the paper itself) enter image description here

  • Thanks for the confirmation that mixing the two is generally acceptable. How then does citing in an "aside" footnote occur i.e. does one footnote refer to another for the reference? Word/OpenOffice/LibreOffice etc. don't allow the use of footnotes like this. Jun 16, 2021 at 13:26
  • 1
    I have edited my response in order to address your comment. Please check it.
    – djohn
    Jun 16, 2021 at 13:37
  • I thought of this but thought it seemed too messy. Good to have a visual confirmation. Many thanks. Jun 16, 2021 at 13:59

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