I'll guess the answer from the committee would be no for a conference because of time constraints, but you can ask. Once camera ready copy is provided any changes require time and cost and are likely reserved only for minor changes.
But you can certainly ask. You can also discuss the updated material in any conference talk you give, but it won't likely show up in proceedings.
It is possible, however, that there are two stages and the current copy is just for distribution to attendees with a later corrected/updated version done for publication in proceedings. If that is possible, the chair will let you know.
But you should also consider a follow up paper to extend the one given at the conference.
For a journal paper, the answer might be different, but it might also lead to a delay in publishing or even a new round of reviews. So, it might be best to skip it in any case.