Many of the students I teach do not have English as their first language. Also, my English tends to fall on the British (Australian) side of the divide, and I'm teaching in US institutions. Sometimes, this has led to misunderstandings of exam questions during standard exam conditions.
The pandemic has led me to move my exams to being oral exams (taken online via Zoom, Discord, or Teams). This allows me to correct these misunderstandings at exam time.
However, more recently I've moved to publishing my exam paper before the exam (making it "public" to the class). I generally include far more questions than can adequately be covered in a given oral exam, but I make it clear that only a subset of the stated questions will be asked of the student. I generally release the exam two weeks before the exam period.
This allows me to address any misunderstandings to the whole class well before the exam. My only rule regarding answering student questions about the exam before their oral is that my answers must be in front of the whole class --- either in class or on the class discussion forum.
Does anyone have an educational reference for this approach to exams? Or whether there is a term for "open exam" exams?