As a Ph.D. student in Germany, what's the maximum allowed holiday time per year? I heard of 1 month per year.
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The answer will be specified in your job contract, stipend agreement or whatever source you get money from. Most PhD students in Germany are employed under one of the collective labor agreements (TV-L, TV-H etc.), according to which a full-time employee has a right to 30 days of paid vacation per year.
In addition to the answer given by lighthouse keeper, I think it is worthwhile to point out the following points more explicitly, since the comments indicate that there is some confusion about the status of PhD students at public universities in Germany.
Disclaimer: The following information is certainly far from comprehensive. I'm also far from being an expert for any kind of legal questions, so beware of the usual rule: If you want legal advice, you have to ask a lawyer.
Strictly speaking the question is not well-posed since a status as a PhD student does not constitute a status as an employee of the university. More precisely, the system works as follows in Germany:
In general, being a PhD student only means that you have agreed with your advisor that they will advise you while you do research on a certain topic which is intended to result in a PhD thesis. Sometimes (though not always) this is accompanied by somekind of formal agreement between the PhD student and the supervisor (there's the wonderful bureaucratic notion "Betreuungsvereinbarung" for this in German). Many PhD students are also formally enrolled as PhD students at their universities (although this is not always the case).
However, none of this gives the PhD student a legal status which is comparable to a contract of employement. In particular, merely being a PhD student does not include any concrete obligations concerning numbers of working hours, or the legal obligation to carry out any particular tasks assigned by the advisor. Conversely, this also means that there is no such thing as "vacation" for a PhD student - simply since there is no contractual obligation to do any work from which a PhD student could take a vacation.
Employment - and thus, vacation - enters the game when it comes to the question of funding. Typically, there are three ways in which a PhD student in Germany can make for a living:
The PhD student gets a job a "scientific employee" ("wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter" in German) at the university (strictly speaking, the employer might not always be the university itself, but sometimes the federal state where the university is located; but this is probably not too important here).
Such a position can either be a so-called "Landesstelle" - (i.e., it comes from a pool of positions which are permantly at the disposal of individual professors, and it typically comes with a certain amount of teaching duties), or it can be paid for by a research grant (in which case it does typically not involve teaching duties).
In each of these two cases, a PhD student with such a position is employed as a public servant and thus, a collective wage agreement for public servants applies. As a consequence, the employee (i.e., the PhD student) is entitled to 30 days of paid leave per year (those 30 days are in addition to public holidays, for which all employees are also granted paid leave in Germany, no matter whether they are employed in the public or in the private sector).
The PhD student wins a scholarship which funds them for the time of their PhD. Such scholarships do not constitute an employement contract in Germany. In particular, the concept of "vacation" is not well-defined since the PhD student is not an employee.
Of course, this does not mean that the PhD student has to work all the time. Since there is no employment contract, there is, again, no legal obligation to work a specific number of hours or days, and thus, the PhD student can of course "take days off" by simply not working on some days. (Although the regulation for the scholarship might contain some terms which require the PhD student to "put a reasonable amount of effort" into pursueing their PhD, or something similar - but this will be much less specific than what is defined in an employment contract.)
Finally, there's also the possibility to do a PhD and to do, at the same time something completely different for a living. For instance, a PhD student might be employed part-time in the industry. In this case, the student will of course have a contract with their employer for this job, which again entitles them to a certain amount of paid leave (by law these are, independently of the employer, at least 20 days per year for a full-time job - which are, again, granted in addition to the paid leave for public holidays. Many companies grant more paid vacation, though (often 30 days), and some are even obliged to do so since this is required by some collective wage agreements with unions).
But since, in this case, the job is completely unrelated to the PhD position, so is the vacation. The question how much of their time the student spends on their PhD is again not subject to any contract of employment in this case, so again it is not possible to talk about "taking vacation" (in a legal sense) from the PhD studies.