H1B visas in the United States are intended for specialty workers and are appropriate for individuals with PhDs using those skills to teach students. H1B visas are awarded through a lottery system. Fortunately, non-profit organizations, including universities, are exempt from this lottery and can obtain H1B visas much easier. This visa is the most typical visa for someone in your situation. Reputable US institutions interested in hiring you should be willing to and have the infrastructure to apply for an H1B on your behalf. H1B visas are valid for 3 years and may be extended for an additional 3 years for a total of 6 years.
Optional practical training (OPT) following an F1 visa is required to be directly related to the student's area of study. Teaching in the field of your PhD would fulfill this requirement. As an individual in a STEM field, you would be eligible for a STEM OPT extension for up to a total of 24 months. A benefit of this approach is that the application cost is lower ($410 versus up to $4500 at the time of this answer not including legal fees). Your employer may file a petition on your behalf to change status from F1 OPT to H1B.
Beware of J1 visas, as they are intended for "exchange visitors". These visas typically trigger a two year home country physical presence requirement after completion of your stay before you are again able to apply for other visas including H1B and permanent residency.
Caveat: My experience is exclusively at R1 institutions, and thus may not be fully applicable to "liberal arts colleges"