I am very new to the ordeal of incorporating citations into my work, but I'm working on a project for school, and in it, I'm using the APA 6th citation format. https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/core/

This is a source I used. I believe it falls under the category of "Website" (translated from Norwegian, I'm using a website that shows the different formats of citation for different text types). Now, the link provided is described by NatGeo as an encyclopedic entry, and no authors nor publication date is to be seen anywhere. I couldn't spot it at least. Now, the website I used said that the format of citation for "Websites" is like this:

Blah-blah-blah (National Geographic, 2009)

However, I can't find that date that I need to include at the end. Is there then an altenative format to use? Or am I just not looking properly for said date?

  • 5
    For web resources, which can change without notice, it is typical to give the date on which you last accessed the article.
    – Buffy
    Commented Jan 27, 2021 at 21:44
  • 1
    If you go to your link, scroll down and click on 'Credits", it provides a "last updated" date. In the case of NatGeo, maybe it can be trusted. But I agree that giving the date you last accessed the article is also useful.
    – Anyon
    Commented Jan 28, 2021 at 15:55
  • @Buffy Reading on the site that gives a tutorial on how to use citations, it says that for the case of websites, one should include the date of access in the citation list in the end. However, it says how one formulates this in Norwegian, so my question is, how does one write this in English? Is it Accessed 8th November, 2020?
    – A. Kvåle
    Commented Jan 28, 2021 at 19:33
  • 1
    That would be fine. In that order the comma isn't needed, actually. But in the US we also write November 8, 2020, with a comma. That isn't universal in English, however. What you have is actually fine.
    – Buffy
    Commented Jan 28, 2021 at 19:40
  • @Buffy Okay thanks, I've already sent in the assignment, and I went with "Accessed January 28th, 2021". That way, it matched the format of year and date that was included in another website I cited.
    – A. Kvåle
    Commented Jan 28, 2021 at 20:35

1 Answer 1


The APA blog answers this:

Determining Website Dates

If no date of publication is provided, use the letters n.d. (which stand for “no date”). The copyright date on the website itself should not be used as the publication date for particular content on that site.

(Note that you should use the updated date if there is one.)

When you have multiple citations for the same website and both have no date, you should append a letter to the end, similar to an actual year: “n.d.-a”, “n.d.-b”, etc.

  • Okay, so in my case, that would be (National Geographic, n.d.). If I were to use any other article from NatGeo in that same text, I would have to change the first one to (National Geographic, n.d. -a), and the other to (National Geographic, n.d. -b).
    – A. Kvåle
    Commented Jan 28, 2021 at 11:33
  • 1
    @A.Kvåle Exactly, except there’s no space before the hyphens.
    – Laurel
    Commented Jan 28, 2021 at 11:59
  • Okay, thank you :)
    – A. Kvåle
    Commented Jan 28, 2021 at 18:08

You must log in to answer this question.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged .