In my research paper, I have cite from a curriculum published by the Ministry of Education in my country. Should I cite the name of the ministry in my own language (i.e. Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı; MEB as abbreviated in subsequent citations) in Turkish or in English translation (as Ministry of National Education; like MoNE, 2020)? And how should I reference it at the end in the sources section?

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    Everyone please note that the APA has a very strict style that goes to ludicrous lengths in specifying every dot and tittle. (I am unaware of other organizations' styles that have their own website and a style blog. The APA Publication Manual, 7th ed., has 428 pages.) Since the OP asks specifically about APA style, answers based on common sense without reference to the APA's style guidelines will probably be misleading. Commented Jan 26, 2021 at 8:29

3 Answers 3


The standard in APA when citing something titled in a language other than the one you are writing is to use the original title (transliterated to the Latin alphabet if necessary) but to also include a translation enclosed with [ ]s.

For an example from the link below:


Bussières, E.-L., St-Germain, A., Dubé, M., & Richard, M.-C. (2017). Efficacité et efficience des programmes de transition à la vie adulte: Une revue systématique [Effectiveness and efficiency of adult transition programs: A systematic review]. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne, 58, 354–365. https://doi.org/10.1037/cap0000104

See also https://guides.library.uq.edu.au/referencing/apa6/works-in-non-English-languages and https://guides.library.uq.edu.au/referencing/apa6/works-in-non-English-scripts

  • What about in-text citations?
    – nick012000
    Commented Jan 26, 2021 at 5:30
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    @nick012000 In APA I think in-text citations are always author/date format, right? Is there an exception where the title of a reference would matter? I can't think of any citation style that uses the title in-text, but I may be missing something outside my area.
    – Bryan Krause
    Commented Jan 26, 2021 at 7:06
  • Yes, author/date, but what about when the author is an organization whose name isn't in English? For instance, when you do an in-text citation for something written by Google in 2019, you'd cite it in-text as "(Google, 2019)".
    – nick012000
    Commented Jan 26, 2021 at 11:42
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    @nick012000 Ah sorry, now I follow you. I can't find specific APA guidance on that circumstance with an institutional author but in examples from less authoritative APA reference guides it seems the institutional author is used as-is (transliterated but not translated).
    – Bryan Krause
    Commented Jan 27, 2021 at 16:59

If the rest of your paper is in English and aimed at an international audience, it's more helpful to cite it in English translation. You might even want to write "Turkish Ministry of National Education", to make it clear which country's ministry you're referring to.

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    Sorry to ask, but is your answer based on common sense or on the APA style? If the latter, can you cite the specific section in the APA publication manual you are referring to? Commented Jan 26, 2021 at 8:30
  • I was just going off common sense. If you want to reach an international audience, you need the translation (possibly in addition to the original Turkish). That's regardless of which specific citation style you're using. You need to look beyond strict adherence to rules to why you're citing things - so that people can understand what your sources are.
    – ObscureOwl
    Commented Jan 26, 2021 at 10:04
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    In principle I do agree with you. But APA style thinks differently. There is pretty much zero allowance to "look beyond strict adherence to rules to why you're citing things" in the APA Publication Manual. I'm not saying this is the way things should be, but in a question that explicitly asks about APA style, it would be good to clearly indicate which part of an answer is based on common sense, and which part is grounded in the APA Publication Manual. Commented Jan 26, 2021 at 10:08

Both. If the legal/official name is X, then you certainly want X appearing, for example as a searchable item, whether or not it's in English or whatever. At the same time, yes, you probably want to give an explanatory translation (e.g., into English), for what the official title/name/label means.


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