For example:

According to Smith [5]...

For the second reference to the same author, would I write the following:

[5] argues that...

Is it appropriate to begin a sentence with a bracket? Can someone please show me the correct options for referencing the same author multiple times?

1 Answer 1


In the IEEE style, and more generally in numeric citation styles, one only rarely writes the author names.

I'd thus rewrite the first sentence as

According to [5] [...]

Starting a sentence with a citation may not be inappropriate but may reduce readability (this kind of issues if frequently fixed by the copy editor anyway). I'd thus rewrite your second sentence as

In [5] it is argued that [...]

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