I would be very surprised if a university allowed you to get a PhD without being enrolled in a program. When universities give out degrees without enrollment, it is generally in the form of things like "honorary doctorates" which are frequently given to commencement speakers and very different from a real PhD. That said, prior work can greatly expedite the process, particularly if you are working with the same advisor. For example, there was a medical doctor who had been doing research with my graduate department who enrolled in our PhD program. He was able to get his PhD by basically continuing the work he had been doing with our department for another two years. He also took a few classes and of course did the milestones such as qualifiers and orals, but it was significantly expedited compared to the 5-7 years which is typical for that department.
However, I would question your motivation for taking this route to a diploma. In my experience people who have done research with PhD labs who do not have PhDs fall into one of two categories 1) people who are still developing 2) people who have gained expertise through another route.
People in category 1) are the most common. These are individuals who have gained some research experience by working in academia. However, in most cases, while they may have the same number of publications as might be expected of a graduate student,the process of getting those publications is very different. They have generally been given a project that is better defined and with a clear path forward. A PhD student on the other hand would have had a higher level of expectation define their own project and a will likely have to try more avenues before finding one that works out. If this is the case for you, then your experience will certainly help you out, but it is not sufficient to receive a PhD. In fact, many PhD departments (such as my own) consider this type of research and publication record a prerequisite for enrolling in the PhD program.
The people in category 2 are more unusual. These individuals really are thought leaders in their fields who have made a significant impact in those fields. Despite not having a PhD, they are sought out as collaborators and are frequently asked to give talks in their area of expertise. This is the category I would put the medical doctor I previously described in. In general, these people don't really need PhDs as the recognition of expertise that it conveys has already been granted to them by the members of that academic community. While I certainly could understand the desire for the title, it is unlikely their career will be significantly impacted by holding it. If this is the case for you, you should have no trouble finding an institution who will jump at the opportunity to collaborate with you in exchange for an expedited PhD process.