Can I use paragraphs from an already published article in a new article? I want to repeat some ideas as an introduction and there is no point in re-writing them when I already reached my desired precise expression. I have the copyright of the original article (but I guess the journal that published it has rights on its distribution).
No. That's self-plagiarism and most venues will not accept it. It is flagged by plagiarism-detecting software, and is likely to lead to desk rejection.
Actually, Yes, under certain conditions. There are two concerns. The first is self plagiarism, which you can avoid by citing the older work in the new where you use such paragraphs. You avoid self-plagiarism in general by citation. But generally it needs to be clear you are quoting the earlier work.
The second concern is with copyright. If you don't still hold copyright for the original because you've yielded it to a publisher, then you have to limit yourself, even in self quoting, to rather short passages and clear quotation. This isn't a problem if you hold the copyright yourself.
Some publishers will give authors a relatively free license to self quote, however. Not every publisher, but you can ask. This would be easier if you are going to try to publish with the same publisher as previously.
But, if you look at the situation of new editions of books, you will find that such copy paste is acceptable in some situations and is condoned by (some) publishers.
An added concern, however, is that you don't avoid the self plagiarism trap by just paraphrasing your earlier work without citation. It isn't the literal words that are the issue, but specifying the original source of the ideas behind the words. The same concern is there for ordinary plagiarism, of course.
What do you mean by "use", simply repeat without attribution?
If you treat your own works the same as you would anyone else's, there won't be any problem.
If you quoted a paragraph from some other person's paper, you'd provide an appropriate citation for it. Do exactly the same thing, regardless of who wrote the original.
Many papers are already written in a formal style in which the author(s) refer to themselves in the third person, so treating your own work as if it were someone else's should flow naturally, without your having to mention explicitly in the text that it is your own.