Can I cite in two different ways in the same paper? Is this considered appropiate?


It was first shown in Heston (1949) that the model is complete. An easier proof can be found in [5].


You should stick to one citation style in one document. But mentioning author names or publication dates in the text while using a numbered citation style is no problem:

It was first shown by Heston in 1949 that the model is complete [4]. An easier proof can be found in [5].

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  • Note that text should still make sense if the references are removed. So, it would be better to say something like "...is complete [4]; an easier proof of this fact was later developed [5]." – Nathan S. Feb 18 at 4:59

No, you should be consistent.

One exception: When using superscript in-text citation, when you use the citation as part of a sentence, it is no longer a superscript.

Example: It was shown that the model is complete.1 An easier proof can be found in Ref. 2.

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  • I've never seen it written this way. Usually citations-as-text with this referencing system do include author names with the superscript. See here for example: bmjopen.bmj.com/content/6/5/e010253.full "Hyndman et al^6 conducted a study..." – Earlien Feb 17 at 4:48
  • @Earlien Author names are very rare in physical sciences. – Anonymous Physicist Feb 17 at 4:55
  • There is nothing in the OP's question to suggest this is about the physical sciences. My comment is not limited to a specific field, but is a summary of the Vancouver style guide for this situation. – Earlien Feb 17 at 5:13
  • @Earlien All I'm saying is that your comment is limited to some range of fields which are not ones I usually work with. – Anonymous Physicist Feb 17 at 9:30
  • My comment is limited to the scope of the question as posed by the OP, which is the Vancouver style. Whether that has limited usage across research fields or not is hardly relevant. – Earlien Feb 17 at 10:33

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