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What is the name of this reference style? In which other fields have you seen it?

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It replaces author names (in the list of references) with a long underscore when it's the same authors as in the previous item. Also, numbers of the last page are abbreviated if there is too little change. With the latter I am not sure it's part of the reference style, or just a convention.

I found this reference in Economics, namely here: https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/2118200.pdf

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    This is... somehow nearly a "cross-site-duplicate" of tex.stackexchange.com/questions/29381/… (I remember using the IEEEtran style recently, thinking WTF!? when I noticed this... I had never seen it before, and it fortunately seems to be uncommon) – Marco13 Oct 21 '19 at 22:28
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I have seen this style in a number of older IEEE publications (in Computer Science and related fields). Most commonly, I have seen this reference style used in old publications, and rarely on anything published after 2000.

For another example you can check:

L. Vincent, and P. Soille. "Watersheds in digital spaces: an efficient algorithm based on immersion simulations." IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence 6 (1991): 583-598.

From looking at this related question, it seems like it is possible to use this convention in a number of styles (examples in the linked question are provided in both MLA and Chicago citing styles). They further mention that the style is common for historical books in math, used by most of the humanities in the US as well as US high-schools (from where it could reasonably propagate to the higher levels of education).

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I don't really agree with the other answer. It's still used in recent publications, and not just in the US. I've recently seen this in the Annales Mathématiques Blaise Pascal (random French example) and all AMS publications until very recently (at least 2013, although they changed the style between then and now). "I've never seen this" doesn't really prove anything.

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