I'm writing a paper for a political theory class, and need to cite a couple of classic works. Namely, Marx's "Capital." In Chicago style, should my footnoted citation say "Marx 1867" or have the year the translation I'm quoting was published, 1981. I've cited the exact edition in my bibliography, with the year 1981.
The year in the note citation needs to align with the year in the bibliography, so they have to be the same. Use the publication date for the translation you are quoting in the bibliography, as you have it now. You can follow CMS guidelines for citing a reprinted work, which allows you to include the original date of publication, but since you are working with a translation, it won't be 1867. It will be the date the translation was first published.
That said, you can include 1867 in the text of your article if its relevant to your argument.