Part of answering the question accurately is defining what you think "Financially Irresponsible" means.
In the linked question, the user seems to define it as the maximum amount of profit they can make in their lifetime or at least in the time period of them finishing their PhD and finding their first job. By this definition, in fields where industry is mostly practical application of skills (think software developer, system administrator, etc), it would be financially irresponsible to get a PhD since you would be losing out on a higher salary, potential bonuses, and most importantly industry experience that could lead to promotions and higher salaries.
In some industries, getting higher education like a masters degree or PhD is necessary to find a high paying industry job. There are many very general degrees like biology, chemistry, physics, or mathematics that have very few positions for BS graduates but more, higher paying positions for those who furthered their education and got a more specialized degree (Biology BS -> Dermatologist, Mathematics BS -> Big Data Analyst, etc)
In terms of the points you brought up:
A. Regardless of whether or not you have an advanced degree, you will more likely than not end up in a relatively low level position if you have no industry experience. Even if you end up in a more advanced form of industry because of your degree, you will probably start out on the lowest rung of the ladder.
B. In industry, you are usually only capped by your skill and turnover of the higher ups in your company. The second point is irrelevant if you are finding a new job with the experience you have from previous ones.
If you are asking because you had plans to get a PhD and are now second guessing yourself, try to figure out the exact reasons why you would like a PhD, even before thinking about if you feel it is necessary for your field. If you are only in it for the extra money/higher level position, you may need to evaluate whether a PhD will actually be beneficial in your field.
If you asked just out of curiosity, hopefully these answers have helped you out.
To put it into context, I have a BS in CIS and a minor in System administration. The sysadmin classes were quite close to what I experienced when I worked as a sysadmin with the caveat that you cannot possibly touch on every technology, command, etc that you may need in an industry position with the amount of courses you would take for your degree. As a software developer, I use little to none of what I learned in my CS classes and in retrospect, I feel like universities are starting to treat the CS curriculum similarly to how they treat other hard sciences in the sense that you are learning primarily theoretical concepts and techniques and spending very little time on the application of such techniques.