Honestly, the PhD experience is highly inconsistent. A rare few sail through with no major hardships, a larger proportion join an established research group and at least have peers to help them through the challenges in their research. However, even that basic level isn't a given for the modern PhD experience.
First is that within 12 months if you don't know more about your area of research than your supervisor then that is a very bad sign. In theory your supervisor should be at least dedicating enough time to understand your research to just enough detail to offer useful guidance. But the modern academic environment usually has supervisors under such pressure that if they would be lucky to be able to dedicate more time to your research than the time they spend meeting face to face with you.
I feel it is a very valid complaint if your supervisor didn't engage with you and try to help you through your PhD. But the PhD is a test of individual endurance. While doing a PhD you are technically a student, the process is actually more like the transition from student to employee and sadly is typically handled by a sink or swim process. The PhD is often an almost traumatic experience and most people never want to touch the area they did their research in ever again because of it.
After sounding very negative so far I'd like to encourage you. What you have experienced is a good trial by fire for your chosen career. You have learned the lessons the hard way but you have learned them early. Your decisions were likely reasonable given the context at the time. While the path was hard, you have actually managed to finish, that is an amazing achievement. The next time you face this process it will be much easier for you. While you say you are behind on the publication track, until someone has published the same work you have done, you can always go back and publish past work even 10 years after you did it. On that point, for your future career, remember that there isn't anything more important than publishing papers, so always bring your focus back onto that. Also you should be better at spotting the more toxic environments in academic now, definitely follow your gut feel on that as academia can be a meat grinder.
I think the last point I would say, as well as supporting the idea of seeking some professional help, is to remember that most people in the academic world are trying to do their best but often can't because of the pressures of the environment. Get angry at them, be disappointed, but try to retain some forgiveness because they are human too and soon you will be one of them as well.