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We are preparing a manuscript to be submitted to a peer-reviewed international journal. We have an author that contributed significantly to our research work in which we would like to include her as a first author of our manuscript. The main problem is that she doesn't have an affiliation.

  1. Our question is to advise us please under what institution should she be affiliated?

  2. Can we list her as a first author without an affiliation?

  3. What type of institutions other than research centers and universities could generally be listed as an affiliation on a research paper?

Thanks a lot!

  • This question already seems to have an answer here academia.stackexchange.com/questions/60082/… – user2705196 Aug 1 at 21:53
  • And the answer given is: use your home address or home city. Having an affiliation is not necessary to publish. Its purpose is not a credibility check but for others to be able to contact you / connect with you in some way. (Incidentally, I find the practice of writing full postal addresses an archaic leftover of old times when people would write letters as a means to exchange ideas. We should get rid off that soon...) – user2705196 Aug 1 at 21:57
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You don't need an affiliation to publish. Independent Researcher or the equivalent is enough. You probably need an email address, but likely a professional one, separate from one used for personal things. That isn't really essential, but might be helpful.

  • What type of institutions other than research centers and universities could generally be listed as an affiliation on a research paper? – Naps Aug 1 at 20:11
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    @Naps Companies, non-profits, government agencies, consultancies, self-owned small businesses, etc. Pretty much anything that one might have as one's employer. I've co-authored with people from all of these and more. – jakebeal Aug 1 at 20:13
  • Thank you so much... – Naps Aug 1 at 20:16
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When I was in graduate school I finished up a paper that a former graduate student of my advisor had started writing (but never finished) many years earlier. I decided that what made the most sense was for us to publish the paper jointly. My coauthor had left academia many years earlier and was working for an investment bank, and so put the name of the bank as his institution. You can see the paper here:

http://www2.oberlin.edu/faculty/blinowit/papers/hilberteisenstein.pdf

(The last page is where our institutions and email addresses are listed.)

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