There are two sides of this issue, the way I see it.
Firstly, from your personal point of view, I do not think that you should bear this, indeed, extremely high, responsibility of choosing between academic integrity and economic ruin of your students. But, as you have identified it, this is happening, and I believe this is something you should do something about, as it is directly affecting your life in ways it shouldn't. If I think the government is not properly regulating a field, say food standards, then I complain about it, I vote more carefully, I may become an activist of the matter, or ultimately maybe even start doing politics with the goal of improving those regulations. And that's what I believe you should do.
Secondly, as a professor, you are the leading elite of the society. This privileged position comes with a heavy responsibility for leading the entire society. A responsibility you voluntarily accepted when you chose your career path. Of course you share this responsibility with the entire society, but as a shaper of the future generation, your share is simply larger than the share of most people of the society.
You are not just the de jure guardian of academic integrity, you are a model, you are a leader, you are the shaper, of society. From the weight of your position, I find it your duty to always consider all your roles with every decision. Decide in such a manner that you can peacefully place your head on the pillow every night, knowing that you did right by the people who offered you this privilege. I can't, and I believe nobody can, tell you which side you should error on. Your decisions are extremely personal, they make you who you are, and each situation is different and may grant a different approach.
I would like to take the opportunity to comment a bit on what seems to be the common thinking:
- as long as you teach well, it's not your problem, they are failing themselves by taking too much debt and not studying hard enough. You are paid to guard academic integrity (e.g. giving grades) and not to empathize with other people
The way I see it, this approach just ditches your responsibility. It even sounds as an excuse and that's because it is the kind of excuse other guardians were doing, at great moral costs, but in exchange of significant privileges.
- what if the student will become a doctor and later kill people
This is simply just one particular case for which you have to weigh all the factors before taking a good decision. I would say the risk of the student killing other people in the future is almost always something that should tip the scale towards failing the student. Still, even in this situation, if we consider the extreme case that I would know a student would be drafted if I would fail them, which would lead to an almost certain death, I would just let them pass, even at significant costs to me, because I am staunch opposer of the death penalty.
Ultimately, just because you sought and received the privilege and responsibility of a professor, it doesn't mean it has to be like that for your entire life. You are free to pursue your own happiness, even if that means giving up the responsibility and the associated privileges, but just judging by the question you asked here... that would be a pitty.
In conclusion, being in your situation is hard, it will never be easy, but it really doesn't have to be this hard and it's up to you to change it.