I'm taking a class where the professor has only provided power point slides, which are not even based off of the textbooks listed in the syllabus.
Power-points slides are just a medium; there is wide variation in the quality of power-point slides, so this does not really tell us much about the quality of the material you were given. Your concern here also depends on whether the syllabus sets the textbook as the primary material, or if this was just intended as a supplement. Ideally the course slides and textbook should be of high quality, and should "mesh" well. If you found that the material provided by the lecturer was not useful to you, that is something you should feel free to raise. I would recommend being more specific about your concerns here.
For our final exam, he just provided a generic list of topics. The final turned out to be a different format from our only other exam and some topics required calculations we had never given practice on.
Academics have wide discretion in writing exams, including how to structure/format these exams, and how much detailed pre-exam guidance is given as to its contents. It is not necessarily wrong for a professor to give you a final exam that is of a different format to past exams. Material on the exam should be within the scope of what was taught in the course, but it might involve some new wrinkle on material, and might sometimes include questions or calculations that are in-scope, but sufficiently different from past questions that you have not had previous direct practice. There is certainly no requirement that questions should involve repetition of calculations done in class. Having said this, if you have concerns about the format/content of the exam, you should feel free to raise this and give your views on it. Academics are human, and we sometimes write exams that miss the mark a bit, so it is useful to have student feedback to know what students found jarring.
Would it be appropriate to email the professor and voice these concerns? I want to but I'm afraid it might affect how he grades my exam.
It is perfectly acceptable to give a (professional and polite) email raising concerns about an exam. Most universities have systems in place to solicit formal anonymous course evaluations at the end of the session, and they usually also have "course reps" that can deliver anonymous feedback directly to the lecturer during the session. You can also give feedback directly to your professor by email during the session if you wish. Your professor should be sufficiently professional to grade all the exams fairly regardless of any concerns you raise. No-one here can guarantee that your professor is not a vengeful and unprofessional person, but the odds are against it. Just make sure your email is polite and reasonable (maybe have a friend read it before you send) and make sure you are clear about the things that are of concern to you.