Last year, I finished and defended my doctoral thesis in a STEM field, and have continued working as a researcher in academia since. I am proud of my doctoral work, yet I feel somewhat uneasy about flaunting my newly earned title and refrain from doing so in general.

All senior people in my field have doctoral degrees, so it doesn't really signify anything. Besides, often when people use their title it seems like they do it to show they are an authority of sorts (Dr. Phil and Dr. Oz, for instance). In my field of work that doesn't get you very far; if you're full of baloney people will realize in minutes.

I'm also hesitant about signing off e-mails as a Dr.; there's usually some back and forth with suppliers we work with, for instance. We really depend on their technical experience and I wouldn't want to come across as pretentious or elitist.

My basic question is this: in your experience, what are good circumstances to use ones doctoral title?


8 Answers 8


This may vary by country. I'm in the US, and use mine rather rarely. As you say, senior researchers all have PhDs (or MS + many years' experience), so it's hardly something significant in such contexts. I also don't use it in personal correspondence (e.g., bank paperwork) since that might lead to confusion about being an MD ("real doctor"). So what's left?

  • CV and other biographical documents
  • e-mail signature
  • formal presentations and documents (e.g., grant proposals)
  • anything related to undergraduate teaching

Note, professors might use "Prof." rather than "Dr." for all of these, particularly in contexts where it is obvious that professors are a subset of doctors.

  • 1
    In places where doctors are a subset of professors (e.g. many community colleges in the US where a lot of instructors have only MS/MA degrees), it's common to use "Doctor" rather than "Professor" for those who do have doctoral degrees (and many of those doctoral degrees are not Ph.D. degrees but Ed.D., DBA, etc.) Commented May 3, 2019 at 2:36
  • I'm also in the U.S., and I use "Dr." or "Prof." with my name even more rarely. In particular, my CV has (on the first page) sections about my education and employment, so it's clear that I have a doctorate and that I'm a professor without my also putting that next to my name. For undergraduate teaching, I introduce myself on the first day of class as "Professor Blass" but that's usually the only place that students see or hear my title. Commented May 3, 2019 at 3:53
  • I am also in the US. I have never used "Prof." except in online forms that don't let me submit without specifying a title. (And even there, I prefer to fill in "Required Title",)
    – JeffE
    Commented Sep 26, 2020 at 9:06
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    some might say PhDs are “real doctors” and MDs are “ medical doctors”
    – GageMartin
    Commented Sep 26, 2020 at 12:34

I think this varies by country. In the US there seems to be some unwritten rule that it is only used in a professional context(?). In Germany, it is much more restrictive and regulated. In the UK, it can be used in both professional and social context, but in practice no one really uses it. I am about to be conferred my PhD from the UK, and I almost never had to call anyone by their title - even Profs asks to be addressed by name without the title. In Asia, its alot more varied, and can depend on the hierarchical context. For instance if my boss/employer is a PhD holder, I would more likely address him as Dr. If the person is my colleague (say I'm an RA talking to a post-doc), they might be ok addressing them by name.


A lot of answers about US, which seems the focus of the question. So...


Except those, who got their PhD in the US, the actual German title is "Dr.", in most cases something like "Dr. rer. nat.", "Dr.-Ing.", or "Dr. med.".

As a professorship includes the doctoral title in 99% of cases, but is not obliged to, the formal writing for a professor is "Prof. Dr.". And yes, people use those in email signatures all the time. You can even put a "Dr." in your passport, as there is a thin line between a title ("Dr.") and a job description ("Prof.").

Basically, as soon as you have your doctoral certificate, the "Dr." is part of your name here. You can omit it and many people do, because they don't like to rub it in other's faces. But, basically, you can demand to be addressed as a doctor, if you want to.


Your question appears to indicate a general uneasiness with the use of degree titles, even in contexts where expert knowledge in that field is relevant. There may certainly be some contexts where use of the academic title of "Dr" constitutes "flaunting" your degree, and is pretentious. (If you're on a plane and someone has a heart-attack, and the flight attendants yell, "Is anyone here a doctor?" then I wouldn't recommend putting your hand up.) However, in academic and professional contexts where your skills and training are directly relevant to your authority in that field, it is not unreasonable to use the title that signifies your training. Few would regard this as "flaunting" your degree, and for those that do, it is likely to be based on a more general objection to titles in general.

It is worth noting that in an academic context, the title of "Dr" is not really that high an attainment, relative to other staff. (Titles of "Prof", etc., are generally more impressive.) As you point out, most academics have a doctoral degree, and that is gradually becoming the minimum expected training for an academic. Thus, you are totally correct when you say that this doesn't get you very far --- it is a baseline level for the vast majority of entry-level academics. If you use your title then that is fine, and if you don't use it, people will probably play the odds and assume that you probably have your doctorate.

Personally, I think it is legitimate to use your title in any academic or professional context (i.e., papers, grant applications, correspondence, email signatures, etc.). In such contexts, your education in your field is potentially relevant, and it is unlikely that anyone would hold your use of your academic title against you. Moreover, people do not expect you to have to change your email signature to remove titles in contexts that are less formal. When you have back-and-forth email conversations with people, your signature block will only appear in the first email, and after this you can use informal sign-offs, so it is unlikely you are going to look pretentious.

All senior people in my field have doctoral degrees, so it doesn't really signify anything.

Kinda. But then, by implication, the absence of a doctoral degree would be unusual, and would signify something potentially significant. Use of your title of "Dr" indicates that you have the academic training that is standard for that field. Possession of a doctoral degree might also be required for some tasks in your field (e.g., supervision of doctoral candidates) and so it is legitimate to signify that you have this degree.

...often when people use their title it seems like they do it to show they are an authority of sorts...

And that is illegitimate how? Possession of a doctoral degree in a field (or a medical degree for MDs) is a legitimate indicator of expert training in that field, and therefore valid information suggesting that one is indeed an authority in that field. Having a doctoral degree in your subject puts you at a level of knowledge that is far higher than the average person and so you are indeed an "authority of sorts". You needn't shy away from the fact that you are highly trained in your field, and neither does Dr Phil.

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    "your signature block will only appear in the first email" is very dependent on the email client you use and how you configure it. Commented May 4, 2019 at 5:50

Nordic countries

I have never used my title as a title and I have only used another's title as a title in a playful way with a close friend. Titles might be appropriate when introducing a speaker or an expert, for example in the context of news.

Experience from Finland and a bit less in Norway and Denmark, but not from Iceland. Interpolating to Sweden is fairly safe.


UK perspective

You should always use the doctoral title, both in professional and social contexts, unless the degree is an honorary doctorate.

Even if you do not feel strongly about the importance of the doctoral title, your failure to use it encourages society at large to be less respectful of academics, which is very unhelpful, especially for female and/or ethnic-minority academics (there is published research on the fact that, even at academic conferences, women are less likely to be addressed by their proper title than men), and especially when it comes to getting society at large to take the findings of academic research seriously.

See also https://www.debretts.com/expertise/forms-of-address/professions/ (scroll to the bottom for a table showing that you address a person holding the doctorate as "Dr ___" in both formal and social contexts)

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    I suspect you're getting downvoted because that link and what you've written seems more relevant to how one uses others' doctoral titles, not how to use one's own.
    – Anyon
    Commented May 3, 2019 at 20:56

Use "doctor" only in academia, only in formal circumstance, and then prefer the degree, e.g. Ph.D. In real life, "doctor" is a person with medical credentials.

I answer my phone, "Doctor Brown" in case it's a student on the other end. My email sig says, "Best regards, Bob" and then has "Bob Brown, Ph.D." on another line.

Business cards, professional stationery, etc. should always use the degree, not the honorific. If you can afford engraved personal calling cards, then you can use something like "Dr. Bob Brown"

And by the way, congrats!

  • Business cards, professional stationery, etc. should always use the degree, not the honorific. If you can afford engraved personal calling cards, then you can use something like "Dr. Bob Brown" Shouldn't that be "Bob Brown, PhD" on your calling card, then? Commented May 3, 2019 at 15:58
  • @AzorAhai Nope. It's a personal card. If it were a business card then, yes, it should show degree, not honorific.
    – Bob Brown
    Commented May 3, 2019 at 21:17
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    Huh, I've never heard of anyone having a personal "business card." Commented May 3, 2019 at 21:26
  • @AzorAhai A "calling card" is smaller than a business card, usually engraved, not printed, and has nothing but title, name, and post nominal honors if any. When you go visiting, you hand the card to the person who answers the door so that you can be announced properly. Really. In the 21st century, about the only use for a calling card is to enclose it in a wedding present. So, my business card says, "Bob Brown, Ph.D." and has a bunch of other blather on it, like the University logo, email, etc. My calling card, if any, says "Dr. Bob Brown."
    – Bob Brown
    Commented May 4, 2019 at 7:43
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    This answer seems to be about a certain region (US?) but it written as it holds worldwide. -1.
    – user111388
    Commented Jun 22, 2020 at 16:02

Never. Never, ever.

Seriously, there is absolutely no need to use the title, ever, under any circumstance. I have never come across a situation where it might have been advantageous to use the title. Worse, if people are in need of a medical doctor you may find yourself explaining you are "actually not that kind of doctor" - which for the general populace means, not a real one.

Sure, for some appointments a PhD certificate may be required. A bored HR flunky will take a photocopy and file it somewhere.

(As for letters trailing the name, this seems to be a peculiar obsession of the English-speaking world in which you may indulge if you must. It always reminds me of Animal Crackers In My Soup for some reason.)

  • downvote? I am right about this, but I guess the truth is neither here nor there on the Internet
    – Deipatrous
    Commented Dec 28, 2021 at 17:38
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    I cannot speak for the people that downvoted you, but I can offer a counter to your argument. To be honest, in a way you are right, i have never personally needed to use my title. I used to believe like you that titles were unnecessary. But i having seen the difficulties that some of my colleague have being given the respect they are due: young or female or minority, who are dismissed, or assumed to be the cleaner or tea lady, or at least someone it is not necessary to listen to, that i now do use my title in some cases. Not for my own benefit but to normalise it for those that need it. Commented Dec 28, 2021 at 23:28
  • See my answer to this: academia.stackexchange.com/questions/114713/… and in particular this poem: s3.amazonaws.com/external_clips/2337575/… Commented Dec 28, 2021 at 23:29
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    I down voted because this is an older question with other superior answers, and this answer is also pointlessly derisive.
    – user137975
    Commented Dec 29, 2021 at 2:06

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