I have recently been accepted to a top five math PhD program. The department seems to have a good mix of pure and applied math, and there are plenty of opportunities for collaboration with other departments (Stats, CS, Econ, etc.)
I am most interested in pursuing math more on the applied side of things. Moreover, I would like options outside of academia once I graduate. Looking at the previous PhD alumni, this does not seem to be a problem - anyone not in academics is doing pretty interesting stuff in finance, data science, consulting, machine learning. However, I want to make sure I am not missing something along the way that these students did which enabled them to have broad and attractive job prospects.
I am especially interested in Analysis, Probability, Stats, Machine Learning, Econ, Mathematical Biology, Cryptography, and Applied topology. I would be happy to do work involving any one of these.
My questions are these:
What should I do during my PhD to be able to have good non-academic job prospects after graduating? (Would something like a PhD minor be helpful?)
How does it differ by field? If I want to do something like quantitative finance, what do I need to do versus if I want to do something like data science?
How can I find out more information about question two. As things change and evolve, how can I find out what it is I need in order to be accepted for positions and jobs involving areas that interest me?
I am not sure if I am exactly asking the right question, so if someone else has suggestions of what I should be asking, please suggest.
Note: There are a number of questions on this site that ask similar questions, ("I'm doing math but I want to go into industry") However I think my question is rather different. Firstly, I am hoping to pursue research with applications during my PhD, rather than focusing on super pure math. Secondly, I am asking this question before I have even started my PhD, hoping to know what I should do before, during, and after my program. Most of the other questions basically have the theme "I did a PhD in pure math, now what?"