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Recently, I had an interdisciplinary discussion with some friends about Industry 4.0, internet of things,...which brought up the question, which kind of academic revolutions apart from industrial revolutions have happened so far. Unfortunately, we are all working in STEM and not humanities and are no experts in philsophy of science or sociology.

Google scholar reveals that the term "academic revolution" exists and is broadly used in scientific literature. But, even on wikipedia, I could not find a good overview of the timeline and kind of academic revolutions that happened so far or are thought of by scientists in humanities.

Intuitively and discussed in our group were:

  • Gutenberg printing press invention

  • International postal service

  • ...

  • Internet

  • ...

  • Artificial intelligence/"singularity" (by Ray Kurzweil)

  • ...

I hope there are also some non-STEM users and scientists here who can possibly shed some light on this or link a good review article or website.

Personally I'm more interested in the methodological and scientific indication of an academic revolution (e.g. strong increase in exchange of scientists between countries and disciplinaries, interdisciplinary referencing, number of research articles, open science, peer review changes etc...). Some of those phenomenological academic discruptions can probably be quite well recognized by bibliometric analysis as in a recent question here about "global number of publications over time". But my short googling left it unclear to me, if all of above bullet points are actually agreed on as single academic revolutions by the research community. Also the changing interdependency of universities - industry - government seems to play a bigger role in identifying and arguing for an academic revolution. But apart from technological disruptions, of course also financial disruptions of the funding of academia is an important factor as well as the historical cultural disruptions like the french revolution or the cold war. In the end I would like to be able to extrapolate from a good answer on this question and the past revolutions, which future academic revolutions are to come or if artifical intelligence is the next and last one thought of.

  • I don't understand the close votings for such an elemantary question asking for a good review article, book or a short list of past academic revolutions?! But every further redundant question here how to write an email to professor X seems more important...on history.se many good questions where answered after weeks, sometimes years with new insight from experts. Not understanding or being able to answer a question in not a plausible reason for it being "too broad". On biology.SE and physics.SE they got rid of most interested scientists by over-moderation,here it looks also like homework Q&A's – user48953094 Mar 27 at 14:53

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