I am reading a book called Foundations of Statistical Natural Language Processing, in which there is a section called further reading. It states the following:

Chomsky (1965: 47ff, 1980: 234ff, 1986)

I am not able to find any paper of Chomsky written in 1965! Any help?

  • 2
    "I am not able to find any paper of chomsky written in 1965": see the bibliography at the end of the book. It does not refer to a paper but a book. Sep 15, 2013 at 10:22

1 Answer 1


"ff" stands for "and following" so in your case it is page 45 and following pages that are indicated. It should be used when no stop page can be given. The abbreviation comes from the latin for page foilum plur. folia. Originally one would write page 45f to indicate just the following page, i.e. "45-46". The two f's indicate more than one page so "45 and on".

  • what does 1965 stands for ?
    – krammer
    Sep 15, 2013 at 13:08
  • 1
    That is the publication year of the work being cited Sep 15, 2013 at 14:59
  • @krammer as jukka said, I searched the bibliography of the book and there is a book written by chomsky named "Aspects of the theory of syntax" written in the year 1965
    – neo1691
    Sep 15, 2013 at 15:03

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