I have read about reprinting other authors tables and figures, but I couldn't find anything on reprinting laboratory instrument pictures from their manufacturer websites. Can I use instrument photos that I took from manufacturer website without permission?
You almost certainly need a copyright release in the form prescribed by your book publisher.
Track down the manufacturer's public relations office; one or two phone calls should be sufficient to find the right people. They will be very happy to supply you with pictures and the necessary copyright releases.
If you use these instruments in your own lab and they are at all expensive, or you have a lot of them, there will be an account executive (i.e. sales person) assigned to your institution. That person will likely be ecstatic to help you get what you need.
It might be legal or not, depending on where you are as well as on your purpose in reproducing them. If your purpose is something that they would object to, then you might be in trouble even if what you did is technically legal. Lawsuits, even unfair ones, filed by large companies are difficult and expensive to fight.
They probably hold copyright on the images and some companies wage war to protect both their copyright and their public image. If you think you are in this sort of situation, then I'd proceed cautiously and only with legal advice.
But if it is something that they would likely approve or find uncontroversial then asking might be the best route. For example, if you were wanting to write a user guide, they would probably think it fine.