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In a reading exam, we have a passage and questions are asked about the passage. They can be open questions, multiple choice questions, concept-check questions, and so on.

In a vocabulary exam, different questions can be asked: for example, a set of words could be given to fill the gaps of a set of sentences.

Different strategies can be applied here: for example, the number of given words could exceed the number of sentences - that is, "distractors" could be added, and the quantity and nature of such distractors could be further discussed.

In a grammar exam, the question could be productive or multiple choice; again, several options are available and each would have the purpose of highlighting some problematic aspect of language acquisition.

What literature deals with this? Any suggestion will be highly appreciated. Something along the lines of what this IELTS examiner explains about T/F/NG questions in the test: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AcC7CzmHCNM

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    Hi Christopher, welcome to Stackexchange. It's not very clear exactly what you're asking. The title of your question sounds as though the question is "who decides what type of questions to use in an exam". That's probably unanswerable, as it will depend on the institution. But your last paragraph sounds as though you're asking for literature on the best choices of question type to use. Please can you clarify? – Flyto Mar 6 '19 at 15:27
  • What literature deals with this? --- Perhaps this is what you're looking for? – Dave L Renfro Mar 7 '19 at 8:35
  • Hi Flyto, Thanks for your answer. My question was actually "who set the rules", as in, what entities decided that (for example) gap filling is a better testing strategy for vocab skills than simply asking for the dictionary definition. So yes, I am interestiled in the literature that deals with testing strategies. – Christopher A. Horn Apr 28 '19 at 11:21

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