There are few options to consider and not all of them will work on every kind of study nor with every teacher but it's always better to try it. One note though - you need to be really good in order to try most of them as you need your teachers to sympathise. Before I move on let me first challenge your approach a bit.
There was no worry of grade
Well, the professor that teaches you has to measure you somehow. Also you have to be comparable against other students. One of the basic reasons is that someone needs to able to decide who's worth of going further so yes, you will be graded. Also grades should show if you make progress. On the other hand the way you are graded may depend on your agreement with a professor.
Let me give you an example. Where I studied each subject has two parts - lectures and exercises. For exercises you have tests, usually two in every semester. You need to pass both to graduate for the next semester or from the course.
Twice I managed to get the grade not by completing those tests but having instead a totally different task assigned. The task was outside of what was regularly taught. In general my solutions were often somewhat different from the "standard approach", leading to results that were considered as quite new by the professors that taught those topics. Once my end result was entirely different to everyone else in the group for the same task but no-one including the professor could find a flaw in my reasoning. I was told I'll get a max grade if I manage to prove that my result is actually consistent. Yes, it took me a month and I had to use some strange theorem suggested by one of fellow students (definitely not taught in the normal course on any subject, not to mention this specific) but eventually I managed to create a proof.
The second case it turned out my solution to the task (which I found obvious actually) was considered by my professor as an extraordinary result. The original task was just to present the solution but the professor told me that if I can provide the justification that my solution is correct (which he assumed he also considered intuitively to be correct) I'll be granted a max grade. So I did it (it was super-easy for me, the most difficult part was building the correct definition of the function I've created but I had it already well thought over).
I'm force to take that lecture from a single professor (...)
Well, not really. A single professor is responsible for grading your progress. You may go to other professors or learn on-line or whatever. Actually most of professors I know will be happy to teach other students if they were only willing to learn.
with a curriculum s/he prepared, not I chose, (...)
Well, this is something that you need to understand. The professor is responsible for teaching and they need to consider what's best to teach. You are not yet fully developed as a researcher so you may miss some important areas. Again, there are also other reasons, for example ability to compare your knowledge (in theory progress) to that of other students.
(...) and most probably, I don't like his/her teaching.
That's something you don't really know.
even as a professor, you need to give lectures
First of all, that's entirely different thing than attending lectures. But still, you may not like giving dull lectures that you never liked attending. That's great. So rather than giving simple dull lectures find more creative ways of showing the same knowledge. Think of TED talks. These are lectures but still you find yourself looking for them and listening on the YouTube even though no-one forces you to do so.
It's more challenging but it gives you far more joy and satisfaction when you see that your students are interested in your teaching. And I believe that's the only way to really achieve that.
Here are some options that come to my mind. Probably best might be mixing few of them depending on what works for you and for specific professor.
Note, the better you are (and you can actually prove it) the more likely those methods will work.
Yes there are such things. Personally I've seen it for Computer Science (actually it was one of the options I was considering). You essentially do all the learning on-line and some 80% of it is own-paced. You have a set of things that you have to learn and that will be tested at the end of each course.
You'll have the courses/lectures recorded plus you'll get a set of additional resources lie books or web pages that can help you when you want to deepen your knowledge.
What t doesn't solve is that you still get the list of things to learn and that you are still graded in a uniform way.
Individual course of studies
I don't know details, I only know it's possible. Essentially you need to find a mentoring professor who will be leading you and you agree with them what to study. Then such study plan has to be accepted by some board (to my understanding it's on Department level).
You may still need to attend some traditional courses/lectures but you'll have much more impact on which ones will you attend. Also you may for example prove your skills by doing some research or other kind of work so at least part of your progress (grades) will not come from traditional means of teaching.
Pre-agreed conditions to pass the course
This is pretty much what I have already described above from my personal experience. You can go to the professor(s) responsible for particular course and agree what you need to learn and how will you prove to them that you did.
It will probably not work with everyone. On the other hand the better you actually are, the more chances you have to succeed.
In the end it's the grade given by the professor that counts, not how you get it. If you have a mutual agreement, you're good to study as agreed (in most cases as you want as long as you manage to develop the required skills - and prove it)
Essentially you can find out what to expect on most of the studies. What you can do is actually prepare upfront. If you can learn the topic earlier it'll be easier to negotiate your attendance to the lectures. Of course that might mean delaying your studies and spending some of your time on learning that you could use otherwise. On the other hand if you manage to do that you may end up with more free time as you no longer have to attend the lectures.
I cannot guarantee if any of those options will work in your case, especially in the place you study. Actually I believe some of the best universities (Oxford comes to my mind) actually support some of those approaches. Others might see it as a problem. Yet it's worth trying. It costs you little to nothing but can really make studying much more enjoyable experience.