I want to cite someting from this workbook. How can I cite it? The year is 2009 but what should I put between brackets if there is no specific author?

  • The pdf file has "Gilles Couzin" as the author. You could contact that person and ask if he(?) indeed is the author ...
    – Sverre
    Aug 14, 2014 at 17:11

2 Answers 2


I would treat it as an online resource since it is not published and might be replaced by a newer version at some point. To cite this, you don't need an author but make sure you state the date when you retrieved the resource. In BibTeX it is done using @misc entry for example.

Another, but less formal, possibility is that instead of a reference, you use a footnote where you will place an URL and the date you retrieved the resource.


As this is published by IT services and not an academic part of a university, I would treat it the same as a sales brochure from a company. The author is the institution.

Note that if you follow the guidelines for getting a copy + associated documents as in the document, you get to this page, which states "The publicly accessible documents on this page are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License. Their "original author" is the University of Bristol which should be acknowledged as such in any derivative work." (my emphasis)

  • Incidentally, the PDF author is apparently bris.ac.uk/contact/person/…
    – Chris H
    Sep 4, 2013 at 15:02
  • So can I say Information Services (year) ? and in the references refer to the University?
    – Kaser
    Sep 4, 2013 at 18:36
  • @Kaser I would probably use "University of Bristol Information Services" - just saying "Information Services" is rather vague. It's definitely personal preference by this point though.
    – Chris H
    Sep 5, 2013 at 7:21

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