I'm new to the applying process and I'd like to ask a simple question. Does a PhD position in European universities require an application fee?
This is completely dependent on the manner in which the PhD program is handled. If it is a purely research position that is applied for like a job, then there is typically no fee associated with it. However, if it is part of a "program" and involves coursework and other requirements, then there may be a fee associated with a formal application. You'll have to check the announcement of the position to be certain.