Gaming the System – by authors
Gaming the System: Manipulating the Impact Factor in Research (done by authors in the first quoted paragraph, and by journals in the second quoted paragraph):
When it comes to research, many academics tell each other: “You cite my article and I will cite yours.” Academic departments and even the U.S. National Science Foundation have encouraged collaborative research as something positive, which can be true. However, many researchers routinely add their colleagues’ names to their papers as coauthors in order to make the researchers and their departments look good.
After an article is accepted by a journal, the author is oftentimes asked to add a few citations in the research article from that particular publication. Many, including myself, can testify to the practice of coercive citations. Authors now understand what is expected and load their articles with citations from the journal to which they are submitting before they are even asked.
Gaming the System – by journals
Increasing Citations and Improving Your Impact Factor (for journals wanting to increase their citations):
At SAGE, we will help you increase article citations without “gaming” the system with shortsighted strategies that can only compromise perceived quality. We’ll do this by providing editors with the tools to make informed decisions about types of articles and topics they might wish to invite, which potential authors to contact for relevant papers, etc. More generally, all our marketing and online activities are developed with the aim of increasing citations.