I have sent an email to a professor regarding a postdoc position that I saw advertised in the careers web page of her university. The email was very polite and extensively detailed. However, it has been one week now and I still did not receive any reply from the Professor who advertised the position. Is it acceptable if I call her by phone, since she is making her phone number public on her page, or is it rude to do so? I have no problem waiting longer for her reply, but the position will close in less than one month and I would like to know what documents should I submit with the application as this is not specified in the advertisement.
One week is very little time for these things. The person is busy. She is probably considering several applications as well as doing her normal work. Calling probably will not make the situation better and might make it worse. If she is considering your application, she won't want to make any decision in a phone call, of course.
The required documents are likely posted somewhere and can't be known here. You need to find them. If they aren't listed in the position announcement they may be in general application materials of the institution. Failing that, the common thing is your CV and a Statement of Purpose (SOP). You need to convince her or a committee that you are the right person for this position and that your background indicates you will be a good fit. Address both your past and your future as you see it.