I need to create citation for this document https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/countering-hybrid-warfare-project-understanding-hybrid-warfare

It appears that it is developed by an entity called Multinational Capability Development Campaign (MCDC) which as far as I can gather, is a cooperation between NATO and individual NATO member states, but what does it mean that its a "campaign". some more info can be found about them here https://www.act.nato.int/mcdc however it is not clear what exactly this entity is to be defined as. I am furthermore not clear on what to define the document as, whether its a report or something else

According to this page https://libguides.tru.ca/c.php?g=194004&p=1277108 you can cite Reports with the format listed, however this format requires place of publication and publisher which again is not clear to me. the website CitationMachine lists a field for University and Publisher/sponser for citing documents which I am again, not sure what to fill in as.

one of the initial pages includes the information that it is

This document was developed and written by the contributing nations and international organizations of the Multinational Capability Development Campaign (MCDC) 2016-17.

as well as information on the two primary authors, but I am still fuzzy on how to format it to be correct according to chicago.

I need both Bibliographical note as well as foodnote for 1st and 2nd instance of citation, in chicago style. any help on how to treat this is appreciated.

1 Answer 1


A report is referenced in the following format in Chicago style

Last name, First name. Title of Work. Publisher city: Publisher, Year of publication. Accessed Month Date, Year. URL.

In the case of your report you have 2 authors and an unknown place of publishing so Bibliographical note would be;

Cullen, Dr. Patrick J., and Erik Reichborn-Kjennerud. MCDC Countering Hybrid Warfare Project: Understanding Hybrid Warfare. N.p: Multinational Capability Development Campaign (MCDC), 2017. Accessed September 26, 2018. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/647776/dar_mcdc_hybrid_warfare.pdf.

As you can see N.p is used to show that there is no record of place of publisher. This can be seen in this guide and this question.

Your first footnote should look like this;

Dr. Patrick J. Cullen and Erik Reichborn-Kjennerud, MCDC Countering Hybrid Warfare Project: Understanding Hybrid Warfare (N.p: Multinational Capability Development Campaign (MCDC), 2017), page number.

Your subsequent footnote should look like this;

Cullen, MCDC Countering Hybrid Warfare Project: Understanding Hybrid Warfare, page number.

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