There is a problem, not often recognized, that affects some of the best students as they progress through the educational system. Early on, many of those who do well, don't actually have to work very hard to do so. School is easy for them. They are comfortable with the kinds of exams they have to take and no one challenges them very much. That isn't true for everyone, or for every school, of course, but some students can just coast for a while. Often into the beginning of college or even further.
The problem with this scenario occurs when they finally reach something that isn't obvious or easy. But they haven't developed good learning skills in order to deal with it. So they crash, not wondering what happened.
In my view, the real issue is that learning is a skill like any other that actually needs to be taught, and no one taught these students how to learn, thinking it wasn't necessary as they did so well.
I've had college students (in their third year, actually) that had no idea whatever of how to learn anything in a lecture. They didn't know the material before they got there, but just watched, passively, thinking that they would absorb it as they had simpler things. In particular they had no idea at all of how to take notes effectively, how to summarize their notes, nor how to abstract out the two or three key points of a lecture. It was just a picture show to them.
So, even in a third year CS class, I had to teach these students how to learn the material. They didn't know how to take notes, and didn't really even know that it was necessary.
As I said at the top, this can affect the best students, not the strugglers. The not-so-best students know that they have to work. I was fortunate to learn fairly early that I didn't learn easily, so developed better habits that others who outshone me academically early on.
Some things are counterproductive. Hi-liters and text books are a bad idea unless used with discipline. I've seen used books where nearly every line was hi-lited. Likewise laptops aren't actually effective as a learning tool in lecture. There is not enough brain-engagement when you are just listening and typing, trying to capture every word. True, having the whole lecture may be valuable for something, but not for learning unless you also abstract out the essential ideas. It is too easy to forget that part. I've found that index cards are very effective for note taking, precisely because you can't write too much on them, so you tend to write the key ideas, not every word. You can also use index cards rather than hi-liters when reading, making a note of essential ideas.
The other key thing about index cards is that they can be organized and re-organized with new thoughts inserted with new cards. They can also be easily carried and referred to in odd moments when you would otherwise have "dead time" but could review the day's lectures.
Learn how to learn.