How can one know if a paper award decision was made with the award committee not having access to the author names?
I am mostly interested in machine learning / natural language processing paper awards.
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In some cases the award committee or sponsoring organization may describe its procedures on its official website. Otherwise, you can write to the award committee chair and ask.
I don't think there's any more general way to know. In particular, I doubt that there is any central place where you can find this information for many different awards. (It would be a pain for someone to collect it and keep it up to date.)