You seem to be in an excellent position to teach at a community college. A Master's plus job experience puts you in a strong position. A Ph.D. sometimes makes an applicant more competitive for the full-time positions, but so would lots of work experience or good teaching experience.
For instance, here is a handbook listing the educational/work requirements for California community colleges, by field. WARNING: pdf
Community colleges everywhere in the U.S. hire tenure track faculty with Master's degrees or other credentials, and hire many part time faculty (where they are teaching the community college course on the side). Community colleges often hire in a way similar to K-12 schools or general state government positions through state job boards. For a tenure track position you would need to find an open position posted, for a part-time adjunct position, you probably could go directly to the department and ask, or find it on the job board. I'd guess that this is to a large extent specific to what state you are in, as it involves the state government hiring process. Some ads may even run in local papers or the Chronicle of Higher Education.
Some generic advice I'll toss out:
You can meet the Dept. Chair (that is probably the best initial contact), ask to observe a class, or offer to teach a continuing education or non-credit elder (such as Osher Lifelong Learning) or personal enrichment classes. That let's you get some visibility. Any teaching experience is a huge plus for CC positions.
Look at the district's home page for a job board, there should be occasional part time adjunct 'pool' positions you could apply for.
In the same location (or a state-wide government job board) you might find a full-time tenure track position opening.
There is a possible danger spot: I've heard that some CCs have a 'prejudice' against hiring their adjunct into full time positions. I haven't observed that with CC faculty I know (who transitioned from adjunct to full-time just fine), but I've heard it happens in some places.
Here is a nice article on general community college teaching (comments are interesting, too) by Rob Jenkins in the Chronicle of Higher Education. And another one by him, about getting hired as a CC applicant.