However, I am quite irked that they lazily copy and pasted my words
into their paper without even attempting to make it their own in any
The way the question is written, makes it look like if they have tweaked the OP's words and if they were not "lazily copying and pasting", the OP would be quite happy by seeing the work published without the OP's name on it. Well, humani nihil a me alienum, but I think we have a case of more fundamental combined missteps here:
The author of the paper made an obvious misstep, because attribution does not require to be explicitly demanded by the creator, and can be suppressed only by his explicit wish. If they were in doubt, they should have contacted the OP, icy/non-existent relations or not (if I remember correctly civilization is also about being able to communicate in a non-lethal way with even your greatest enemy).
On the other hand the OP made a "practical" misstep, by not explicitly stating his wish to be (or not) acknowledged as a co-author or in some other way in the paper. The misstep is "practical" in that we should recognize, anticipate and manage flawed behavior by others (because our behavior is also flawed), and not trust that simply because some well-known principle exists (here, related to attribution of intellectual works) people will automatically respect it.
What to do?
Assuming that the situation is exactly as the OP describes it, then:
I would avoid accusations or contacting third parties, and I would treat the matter as a simple oversight (which maybe it is). I would write to the authors in a detached professional manner asking them to ask from the journal to insert a "correction" in the paper, that acknowledges the work I have done (not as a co-author). I would include in my message the desired acknowledgment text verbatim.
In today's on-line world, such corrections are not costly to the journals, at least for the on-line version of the paper. If the journal is also printed, the correction will likely appear separately in the next volume, and so of not much use related to the scientific work, but the vast majority of readers will access the digital version.
What does this accomplish?
Several things: I stand my intellectual ground (and both the authors of the paper and the journal will be aware of this), which is professionally beneficial. Moreover, if I want, in the future I can reference this work of mine as mine (the part of it). And I also gain the high moral ground, exactly because I avoid attacks and accusations, while pointing out their oversight.