Certainly everyone will have done courses in these subjects, but their level of knowledge and understanding of the topics will differ vastly. Questions like this are generally designed to elicit a summary of the core principles of the subject, and see if you can explain the subject intuitively in a short period of time. When they ask about your "operational knowledge" they are presumably asking about how to apply the principles you learned in the course to problems. They certainly do not want to hear about the "stuff" you learned in the course, and I disagree with the view that you should describe your courses and textbooks. Instead, I would suggest that you demonstrate that this "stuff" you learned has led you to a clear structured understanding of the subject, that you can explain intuitively in a logically coherent order, and that you can apply to problems.
To prepare for these questions, I would suggest that you practice articulating the principles of these subjects to non-experts, and see if you can explain the subject succinctly and clearly to someone with minimal background knowledge. So, for example, what is quantum physics, in one sentence? What does it add to classical physics, and how does it change the principles of classical physics? Can you give one or two practical applications of the topic and how you would apply this topic to those practical applications (i.e., how to "operationalize" the material)? Be ready to reel this information off succinctly and coherently, and take questions on more detailed specifics.