Does anyone know how to write good letters of reference into a Chinese university? I have an awesome former PhD student who is looking at a position that exactly suits their experience. Is China like the USA that you can write something that is all praise, or is it like some countries in the EU where you are expected to comment on both strengths and weaknesses? How should the letter open?

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    Are you expected to comment on weaknesses for positions in the EU?
    – Kimball
    Commented May 4, 2018 at 0:01
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    Yes–some countries. I had a student rejected quite recently for a Belgian postdoc with a comment that his letters were "implausibly positive", and I have heard of the same thing happening in the UK. Because I am an American working in the UK, I tend to say "In America I wouldn't bother to comment on this, but I know here it is expected to mention a candidate's weaknesses. The worst thing I can say about the candidate is [something not very bad] which will I expect benefit from working at with you because [some plausible reason.]" I've heard Austria requires entirely positive letters though. Commented May 4, 2018 at 0:41
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    According to what I know about Chinese academic culture - do they even read LoRs? But of course I have no first hand experience with this and it definitely differs from place to place. A top place, like Tsinghua or Peking's process is probably closer to that of a US/Europe research university, but things might be very different at e.g. Hunan Normal University.
    – xuq01
    Commented May 4, 2018 at 3:17
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    criticism in Asians cultures....big NO
    – SSimon
    Commented May 5, 2018 at 14:38
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    I just crossed the hurdles to get faculty position. Few suggestions: a) need to focus on how the candidate can able to survive in diverse Chinese cultures b) long term career plan, c) as suggested, no critical discussion about candidate’s weak points.
    – Mithun
    Commented May 14, 2018 at 6:27

3 Answers 3


Writing my comment as an answer, following a suggestion.

I’ve spent two years in China as a postdoc. I have never read a recommendation letter (LoR) but I’ve experienced the culture in academia. As someone else hinted I also do not think anybody will actually read the LoR in any detail, but just skim through it. The focus is on who wrote it (more precisely, what is the author's university ranking and impact factors). About the contents I’d recommend just dropping cliche positive comments but without any exaggeration. The Chinese are extremely sensitive to any form of criticism, and will generally not appreciate outspoken, frank discussions. This will look particularly "serious" if put in written, from a "leader" and addressed to 3rd parties, and might be interpreted as a gentle warning against the candidate.

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    As a side comment, I'd recommend advising the student against pursuing a career in the Chinese academia, as my overall experience with different institutions in that country was discouraging, to say the least. I believe a strong pervasive culture of short-term gain has eroded quintessential local scientific standards and collegiality.
    – Scientist
    Commented Jun 4, 2018 at 11:41

My recommendations:

  • Highlight the applicant's ability to publish, particularly if they have a large number of publications, and particularly if they have publications in journals with a high SCI ranking (SCI 1 or SCI 2 journals, especially; searchable from LetPub). There's other ranking systems, e.g., in computer science, we also use the CCF index.

  • Highlight international collaborations that the applicant is able to bring to the university.

In my opinion, the above two items are far more important than anything else. These are always the top priorities when we have meetings---who's lab published what, and with whom.

  • If relevant, highlight the applicant's English level, especially if they're a native English speaker. If possible, highlight the applicant's willingness to improve the English on student papers.

  • If relevant, name the professor(s) the applicant is intending to work with. In interviews I've been to, if the applicant can't name the professor, they're not taken seriously.

  • Highlight how the applicant has the ability to apply for grants reserved for international applications, such as the Research Fund for International Young Scientists.

  • Describe the ranking of the university where they obtained their PhD.

  • Explain how the applicant is able to adapt to life in China, e.g., highlight their Chinese-language ability, Chinese co-authors, and experiences travelling to China or living abroad. Make the applicant seem less "foreign", a friend of China, and unlikely to stir up trouble.

    (Although if they're from China, Singapore, etc. [anywhere where they speak Chinese and the culture is similar to China], I'd skip this---they might not seem international enough.)

  • If relevant, highlight how the applicant is from a "Silk Road" country (interpreted broadly), which is in line with the government's Belt and Road Initiative.

And, I concur, don't write about weaknesses---they'll almost certainly be interpreted unfavorably.


Do not write about weaknesses in a reference letter for China. Your candor and frankness will not be appreciated as a dialogue...or friendly critique.

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