Professors are not always the best mentors yet a good one is a good people manager who has had training in Positive Reinforcement by Dr. Aubrey Daniels as we all did at work in the 80's. The process involves setting objects, measuring results and getting constructive feedback with consequences for negative results after retry.
Start by writing your own measureable objectives following guidelines from your boss, review with him/her with a timeline and testable criteria, # of critical problems, and performance metrics etc.
Measured accompishments, can be self-rated and compared with boss for discussion on defining clear expectations , refining goals and strategies for improvement.
It can be simplified into Time , Performance (multi-tasking), Quality and Cost Savings for a performance expected that is expected with some level of experience... or exceeded in more than one significant way
Then there are soft skills such as being; reliable , self-reliant, innovative, creative and networking in a way to save time yet not over-burdening , being resourceful, positive attitude towards self and others.
Learning how to learn is the hardest for some to accomplish. yet this is the main goal in Univ, as in industry the practise becomes more diverse and also more focused. e.g. learning how to condut a business plan or lab report or Design Specifications with a Design Validation Test plan and report using structured concise yet simple results to prove validity of the specs and accuracy of the results.
A perfect design is one that only meets "all of the necessary specs" such as Cost, performance, quality and reliability under any environment expected. Climatic, Mechanical, Electrical, Chemical. etc. ; benign or to extreme.
Yet with a faster learning curve gained from experience of failures of others and self by learning solutions and constant reading. This is the fastest way to grow under pressure.
I suggest to request 15 minutes of your bosses time to discuss expectations and you return with this understanding in writing in measureable concise results.
You may also solicit colleague review feedback as everyone is your customer as you are to them for information. Having it in writing for your own learning process is a tool for self improvement.
If it is worth doing, it is worth documenting, but critical issues should always been done in person.