Health problems do not necessarily preclude success in an intellectual field, though obviously it imposes an additional difficulty that you will need to manage. You mention having never heard of a successful mathematician suffering from the same condition as you. I am not aware of any with that specific condition, but it is certainly the case that many famous mathematicians/philosophers have suffered from health conditions on a similar or greater level of severity. This is not surprising given that mathematicians and philosophers have been active over previous centuries where health and medical practices were far less advanced than they are today.
There are literally hundreds of influential mathematicians, philosophers, and other thinkers, who have been plagued by ill-health during their lives, many of whom died young. In this context, it is likely that the health problems you mention would be viewed as relatively minor compared to the afflictions that plagued many influential thinkers during previous centuries. An exhaustive list of examples would be very long indeed, but here are some well-known ones:
Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900): An influential modern philosopher who wrote a number of works of philosophy. Since childhood he suffered from severe migraines, which has been attributed by some to a neurosyphilitic infection (disputed). In his middle-age he unfortunately suffered a mental breakdown and stroke and became physically incapacitated. Prior to this he managed to write a number of important works of philosophy. In his most famous work, Thus Spoke Zarathustra, he famously criticised those philosophers who get "good sleep".
John Nash (1928-2015): An influential mathematician who contributed to differential geometry and game theory (winning the Nobel prize for the latter). Nash suffered from schizophrenia that included severe delusions and paranoia. He was involuntarily committed to psychiatric facilities at various points in his life. Nash had difficulty distinguishing reality from fantasy and his mathematical work was derailed at various points by overactive pattern-recognition stemming from extreme paranoia and hallucination.
Srinivasa Ramanujan (1887-1920): An influential mathematician who made contributions to number theory and analysis. He suffered from severe health problems during his life, including tuberculosis (or possibly hepatic amoebiasis) and bouts of dysentery. He spent some of his life in a sanatorium. He died at a young age owing to severe health problems.
Gotthold Eisenstein (1823-1862): A mathematician who made contributions to number theory and analysis. Suffered from ill health for most of his life and died of tuberculosis before reaching thirty years of age.
Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) An influential mathematician and physicist who made contributions to geometry, probability and physics. Pascal suffered from poor health over his entire adult life. He fell seriously ill with tuberculosis and (possibly) stomach cancer, and spent the last three years of his life with severe illness.
Bernhard Riemann (1826-1866): An influential mathematician who made contributions to number theory, analysis, and differential geometry. He suffered from nervous breakdowns at a young age, and died of tuberculosis before reaching the age of forty.
Frank Ramsay (1903-1930): A mathematician and economist who made contributions to probability theory, economics and algebra. Ramsay suffered from problems with his liver and developed jaundice, and died young.
These are just some examples of influential thinkers who have suffered from severe health problems, and have nonetheless achieved eminence in their fields. There are many other examples of mathematicians and philosophers who died young of various illnesses, though they were not necessarily productive through the those illnesses. Hopefully this puts your own health condition into context. While not wishing to minimise your problem, it is perhaps instructive to note that there are others who have succeeded previously in these fields with severe health problems.
Good luck with whatever you decide to do; hopefully you are able to succeed in whatever field you choose, and manage your illness successfully.