I don't quite agree with the other answer, even though the author certainly had good intentions when writing it.
The answer to whether or not it's appropriate to phone a professor, when you've only briefly communicated with them in the past, will depend on where you are and the culture in that region, but in most countries it is not a good idea anymore (in the year 2021).
In the past, phoning people (perhaps including professors) was much more acceptable, but things have changed and nowadays even some of my closest friends won't answer my phone call if they don't recognize my phone number, because of the increased prevalence of spam phone calls these days. Occasionally some of my students add me on LinkedIn or other social media, but the vast majority of them do not even contact me electronically, and contacting me by telephone is absolutely unheard of nowadays.
In your specific case, based on the reply this professor gave to your email, and the fact that he had made his phone number available in a place that's publicly visible, phoning him could be okay, but the risks outweigh the benefits because it may be seen as being very unusual, and not all professors will be happy to find that a student it phoning them. It's a risk I personally would not recommend for you to take, if the gain that you get from it is simply a chance at a faster response to your email.
The best course of action is to:
- send follow-up emails,
- ask mutual connections (such as friends of yours who are already working closely in this professor's research group),
- visit the professor's office (if the university isn't in some type of COVID lockdown!),
- (specific to your case): find alternative professors with whom you may wish to do your research project, because if this one is not replying several emails in a row, maybe they are not very interested in taking a new student right now, or perhaps they're not very good at communicating via email (my ideal supervisor would be one that responds to emails in a reasonably timely manner when compared to others in the same industry).