I am born and educated in a northern European country.
After I graduate I want to continue doing research within the topics I am passionate about. Much of the research I am interested in happens in the States. So, I am trying to get a clear picture of the PhD programs in the US.
I have tried to find answers on my question online, but the university webpages something leaves me confused. I would be very grateful if any of you can answer my questions or provide me with useful references.
How does the application process work?
Do I apply directly to the university and the later if accepted look for a professor?
Do I have to take courses before I can start doing research despite having a master and highly relevant skills for the topic in question? And if so usually how long?
How does research funding and salary work?